WYSIWYM has been applied in a number of systems at ITRI (University
of Brighton) and the CRC (Open University):
- Drafter-II: Origins
- WYSIWYM developed from the GIST and DRAFTER projects which
were in progress during 1993-96. The first WYSIWYM system was
a re-implementation of DRAFTER by Richard Power in 1996, which
generates software instructions in English, French and Italian.
- Drafter-III: Coreference
- A serious limitation of Drafter-II was the lack of any control
over coreference. The knowledge author could not specify that
two phrases in the feedback text referred to two different tokens
of the same type, rather than to the same token. In 1998 Kees
van Deemter and Richard Power designed a further version of DRAFTER
in which the editing operations were extended to allow control
- Iconoclast: Logical scope
- To meet the requirements of the Iconoclast project, in which
we generate Patient Information Leaflets (which include much
logically complex material such as conditionals), the editing
operations in WYSIWYM were extended further to allow some control
over logical scope. During 1998-99 Richard Power, with help from
Rodger Kibble and Kees van Deemter, developed a demonstration
system in which the editing choices made by the author lead to
the construction of a Discourse Representation Structure, entities
being assigned logical scopes by binding them to DRT boxes.
- CLIME: Query definition
- Complex queries to a database or an expert system usually
have to be expressed in a special formalism. In the CLIME system,
which answers questions about maritime law, a WYSIWYM interface
allows users to define their queries through a feedback text,
either in English or Italian. The system has been developed during
1998-99 by Paul Piwek.
- CLIME: Plurals
- In the latest version of the CLIME query interface, Paul
Piwek has added new WYSIWYM editing operations which allow the
user to construct plural entities (e.g. the pumps) and
to define relations between individual entities and collections
(one of the pumps) or between collections and sub-collections
(some of the pumps). These operations are related to a
DRT treatment of plurals.
- PILLS: Patient Information Leaflets
- A web-based application was developed in 1997 to illustrate
the potential of WYSIWYM as the basis for a system that could
generate patient information leaflets in many languages and styles.
In addition to the Drafter-II languages the PILLS system generates
output in German, Dutch and Portuguese. Intended as a demonstration
of the concept rather than a full NLG system, PILLS does not
allow authors to control the meaning of the output texts in detail;
most choices result in the creation of a prefabricated proposition
rather than an individual entity.
- CLEF: Querying electronic patient records
- CLEF aims to provide an information repository, enhanced by
information extracted from texts (mainly letters to GPs) that can
be queried by medical researchers. To be effective, such a system
requires a easily used query interface. The CLEF query interface
uses WYSIWYM editing to construct a query in unambiguous natural language;
the underlying semantic representation is converted
automatically to a database query in SQL. The CLEF project began in 2002
and has been extended through a second project CLEF-Services to 2007.
- HALO: Querying a scientific knowledge base
- HALO aims to create tools for formulating scientific knowledge
and querying it by posing problems. The knowledge comes from scientific
textbooks; the target questions are taken from American AP examinations
(similar to A-levels in the UK). In the current phase (HALO-2), natural
language technologies are used for both tasks. The OU is contributing
to the task of question formulation, using WYSIWYM editing in a way
analogous to its use in CLIME and CLEF.
- CROCODIAL: CROss-lingual COmputer-mediated DIALogue
- We are developing an application in which two authors hold a dialogue in a chat interface, each contribution being constructed by WYSIWYM editing. In this way they create a knowledge-base encoding the content of the dialogue; this can be used in order to provide services like a generated report, or automatic implementation of any actions agreed during its course. We think the application would be suitable for contexts in which experts speaking different languages need to confer on a restricted technical issue in which precise understanding is very important. We have in mind situations like financial transactions, legal or medical problems, and international policing.
- CAKE: Conceptual Authoring plus Knowledge Extraction
- As part of CLEF-SERVICES we are developing an application in which WYSIWYM is used for post-editing of records resulting from Information Extraction. The technique will be applied to letters from hospital specialists to the patient's doctor (GP). From the IE records, the system will create a feedback text showing (in English) the extracted content, linked to the original letter, along with any gaps. By normal WYSIWYM editing, a human data manager can correct and complete the IE records, so providing a gold-standard through which the IE rules can be improved.
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